Rabu, 11 November 2009
AN ACCOUNTING OVERVIEW
Accounting is frequently called the “language of business” because of its ability to communicate financial information abaout an organization. Various interested parties, such as managers, potential investors, creditors, and the government, depend on a company’s accounting system to help them make informed financial decisions. An affective accounting system, therefore, must include accurate collecting, recording, classifying, summarizing, interpreting, and reporting of information on the financial status of an irganization.
In order to achieve a standardized system, the accounting process follows accounting principles and rules. Regardless of the type of business or the amount of money involved, common procedures for handling and presenting financial information are used. Incoming money (revenues) and outgoing money (expenditures) are carefully monitored, and transaction are summarized in financial statements, which reflect the major financial activities of an organization.
Two common financial statements are the balance sheet and the income statement. The balance sheet shows the financial position of a company at one point in time, while the income statement shows financial performance of a company over a period of time. Financial statement allow interested parties to compare one organization to another and/or to compare accounting periods within one organization. For example, an investor may compare the most recent income statements of two corporations in order to find out which one would be a better investement.
People who specialize in the field of accounting are known as accountants. In the United States, accountants are usually classified as public, private, or governmental. Public accountants work independently and provide accounting services such as auditing and tax computation to companies and individuals. Public accountants may earn the title of CPA(Certified Public Accountant) by fulfilling rigorous requirements. Private accountants work solely for private companies or corporations that hire them to maintain financial records, and governmental accountants work for governmental agencies or bureaus. Both private and governmental accountants are paid on a salary basis, whereas public accountants receive fees for their services.
Through effective application of commonly accepted accounting systems private, public, and govermmental accountants provide accurate and timely financial information that is necessary for organization decision making.
1. Answer the following question about accounting. Question with asterisks cannot be answered directly from the text.
1. why is accounting called the “language of business”?
2. How is a standardized accounting system achieved?
3. What are revenues and expenditures?
4. What do the balance sheet and income statement have in common? How are they different?
5. *How might the information contained in financial statements be useful to managers? *How might creditors use this information?
6. How are accountans classified in the United States?
7. What kinds of services do public accountants provide?
8. What is a CPA? *Do you have a similar type of position in your country? *Explain.
9. *Which type of accounting-public, private, or governmental-appeals to you the most? *Why?
10. *What are some management decisions that might be based on accounting information?
1. According is called the “language of business” because of its ability to communicate financial information about on organization.
2. In order to achive a standardized accounting system the accounting process follows accounting principles and rules.
3. Revenues are incoming money and expenditures are outgoing money.
4. The balance sheet and the income statement are two common financial statement. They are different, the first shows the financial position of a company of one point of time, while the second shows the financial performance of a company over a period of time.
5. The information contained in financial statements might be usefull to creditors in help them to find out whether the company will be able to repay the credit on time or not.
6. In United States, accountants are classified as public, private, and governmental.
7. Public accountant provide accounting services such as auditing and tax computation to companies and individuals.
8. A CPA is a Certified Public Accountant. Yes, we had. Formerly faculty of economic graduates of 5 elite universities got ‘Drs….AK’ degree.
9. Personal question
10. In some company financial decision making might be based on accounting information. For example the management want to expands its business to build a bigger factory to introduce new variety of goods.
2. Circle the letter of the answer that best completes each of the sentences below.
1. Accounting information is used by ______to help them make financial decisions.
b. potential investors
d. all of the above
2. Regardless of the type of business or the amount of money ivolved :
a. all companies use identical accounting systems
b. balance sheets are more important than income statements
c. common procedures are used in handling financial information
d. no standardized accounting system is employed
3. Business monetary transactions are summarized in :
a. bank books
b. financial statements
d. cash registers
4. Public accountants may earn the title of CPA by :
a. becoming governmental accountans
b. paying a fee
c. fulfilling rigorous requirements
d. obtaining a Bachelor of arts degree in accounting
5. Private and governmental accountatnts are paid on a____basis.
A. Subtitute appropriate terms for the italicized words or phrases in the sentences below.
status agencies monitored maintain independently
procedure fee hire rigorous solely
1. Many accounting departments have strict enterance requirements;
only the most qualified applicants are allowed to enter these
2. The particular method used to process employee insurance
claims may vary from company to company procedure
3. The stock market is closely watched every day. monitored
4. Rather than expand into foreign lines, the dress shop manager
chose to deal only with domestic fashion designers. solely
5. Although the consultant’s charge for services was high, his
guidance and advice were well worth the money. fee
6. The financial condition of a company is reflected in its financial
7. When the business began to expand, a second bookkeeper was
brought in to help keep the books. maintain
8. In the United States there are numerous organizations that
provide services at the local, state, and national levels. agencies
B. Complete the sentences with the noun, verb, and adjective forms provided.
1. Communication/to communicate/communicative
a. Supervisor should strive for two-way communication with their
b. By using an overhead projector, the guest speaker was able to
communicate his statistical information clearly.
c. Because of the clerk’s highly developed communicative skills, she was
given a position that required her to deal directly with customers
a. The owner informed his employees that they would all receive a 5 percent pay increase.
b. Getting Acquainted with Accounting, by John L. Carey, is very informative book.
c. Financial information is essential for organizational decision making.
1. The supervisor lost control of his staff members after he allowed them to override his decisions.
2. When the factory was built 50 years ago, little allowance was made for remodeling and expansion.
3. Althought allowable, smoking was discouraged in the lunch room.
1. At times the assembly line worker felt a lack of profesiomal fulfillment
2. When he was promoted to production supervisor, however, his job became much more fulfilling.
3. Before the accountant could became a CPA, she had to fulfill a number of requirements.
5. Standars/has standardized/standard
1. The standard paper size in United States for business letters and memorands is 8,5 x 11 inches.
2. The computer department has standardized its procedures for storting and retrieving data.
3. Nowadays rigorous standards are enforced in the area of food processing and packaging.
C. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms the list.
parties financial statement reflected standardized allows
whereas interpretations informed communicates rigorous
An income statement is one example of a financial statement, it communicates financial information about a company over a period of time. A standardized format
Is used to present the financial information. This allows interested parties to compare one income statement to another in order to make informed financial decisions. But there is still a great deal of risk involved in financial decision making because the information reflected in an income statement is object to variety of
Look at the reading to answer these questions.
What does each of the following refer to?
LINES WORDS REFERENTS
1 its accounting
4 them whereas parties
19 another corporation
21 one organization
Jumat, 30 Oktober 2009
TUGAS BHD.INGGRIS BISNIS
"A company often becomes involved in international trade by exchanging goods or services with another country-importing raw materials it may need for production or exporting finished products to a foreign market. Establishing these trade relationships is the first step in the development of a multinational business. At this stage, however the corporation’s emphasis is still on the domestic market. As trade expands, the corporation’s dealing with companies or people outside the “home country” of that corporation increase."
"The corporation then begins to view the whole world as a base for production and marketing operations. The next step in the development of a multinational business is focusing on the world market. The company may establish a foreign assembly plant, engage in contract manufacturing, or build a foreign manufacturing company or subsidiary. Therefore, a multinational corporation is a company that is primarily based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries."
"Since World War II, multinational corporations have grown rapidly. The names and products of many of the multinational have become well-known in the world marketplace: International Business Machines (IBM), Royal Dutch Shell, Panasonic, Coca-Cola, and Volkwagen. Coca-Cola, for example, now has operations in more then 180 countries."
"A multinational corporation operates in a complex business environment. Cultural, social, economic, political, and technological system vary from country to country. In order to operate successfully, a multinational company needs a basic understanding and appreciation of the foreign business environment."
"A. Answer the following questions about multinationals. Questions with asteris (*) cannot be answered directly from the text."
1. What is the first step in the development of a multinational business?
2. Where is the comapany’s emphasis when it is simply trading with other countries?
3. What market does a multinational corporation focus on?
4. A company may establish its manufacturing operations in foreign countries? What are three forms that these operations may take?
5. What is a multinational corporation?
6 When have multinationals grown rapidly? *Why do you think they have experienced this period of rapid growth?
7. *What are some products that are produced by the following multinational corporations: IBM, Coca-Cola, Panasonic, Shell, and Volkswagen?
8. *Why does a multinational corporation operate in a more complex business environment than a domestic company?
9. *What are some of the social and political factors that can vary from country to country?
10. Why does a multinational corporation need a basic understanding of foreign business environments? *How can a multinational gain this understanding?
A. 1. The first step (it) is establishing the trade relationship with another country.
2. The companies emphasis (it) is still on the domestic market.
3. A multinational corporation (it) focuses on the world market.
4. The three forms (they) are: It may establish a foreign assembly plant, engage in contract manufacturing, and build a foreign manufacturing company or a subsidiary.
5. A multinational corporation (it) is a company that is primary based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries.
6. Multinationals (they) have grown rapidly since World War II. Because during the war many countries knew what recurces are scarce or abundant in other countries.
7. IBM: International Business Machines, Royal Dutch Shell oil, Panasonic electronic, Coca-Cola softdrink, Volkswagen automobiles.
8. Because a multinational corporation focuses on the world market, and each country has its own system: culturally, economically, politically and technologically. Where as a domestic company only operates in one country which its system its already familiar.
9. Socially: In Japan life time employment system is applied, where as in Indonesia contract system employment is used.
Politically: Thailand is monarchism, Indonesia is democratic.
10. In order to operate successfully. This understanding can be gained through market research.B. Determine which of the following statement are true and which are false. Then put T
"or F in the blanks. Rewrite false statements to make them true."
1. T Multinaltional corporations have grown rapidly since 1945.
2. F Any company engaged in international trade is a multinational business.
3. T In order to operate successfully, a multinational company needs to be aware of national and international business environments
4. F A multinational corporation focuses on its “home country,” or domestic market.
5. F A multinational company does not establish factories in foreign countries.Vocabulary ExercisesVocabulary Exercises
A.Write down any terms that you did not understand in the reading. Find each term in the reading, look at its context, and try to figure out the meaning. Discuss these terms with your classmates.
B.Look at the terms in the left-hand colomn and find the correct synonyms or definiti-
Ons in the right-hand colomn. Copy the corresponding letters in the blanks.
1. j corporation (line 5) a. chiefly; principally
2. e expand (line 6) b. function in; work in
3. g view (line 8) c. change
4. i stage (line 5) d. a company having more than half of its stock
owned by another company
5. a primarily (line 13) e. increase the dimensions of
6. h base (line 8) f. growth; expansion
7. c vary (line 21) g. see; look at
8. d subsidiary (line 21) h. foundation
9. b operate in (line 20) i. a step in development
10.f development (line 4) j. a type of business organization formed by an
association of stockholders
C.Fill in the blanks in the following paragraph with the most appropriate terms form the
base operate in appreciation of expands
vary corporation development subsidiary
staged involved in view relationship
"During the development of a corporation, the organizational structure may vary over time and pass through a number of stages . As the corporation grows, it expands its operations. It might become involved in setting up a subsidiary . Although the corporation still has a primary or “home base ,” establishment of a subsidiary allow the company to enter into new relationship with a view toward increasing its production and marketing capabilities."
Look at the reading to answer these questions.
1.What does each of the following refer to?
LINES WORDS REFERENTS
2 it a company
5 this stage first step
17 IBM International Business Machine
2.Match the connective words or phrases with the appropriate functions.
c however (line 5) a. summarizing
d then (line 8) b. illustrating
a therefore (line 12) c. contrasting
b for example (line 18) d. sequencing information
3.Summarize the two general steps in the development of a multinational corporation.
a. establishing these trade relationship. (line 3-5)
b. focusing on the world market. (line 8-10)
4.Sometimes the definition of a term takes this form:
a controls the
A restrictive trade law → is → law → that → number of goods
imported or exported
term being defined → verb to be → class→ which → definition